Product Standard

INTRODUCTION


The Regional European Standard for Vinegar was elaborated by the Codex Coordinating Committee for Europe and adopted by the Codex Alimentation Commission at its 17th Session in 1987.

CODEX STANDARD FOR VINEGAR
(Regional European Standard)
CODEX STAN 162-1987)

1. SCOPE -This standard applies to products as defined in Section 2.1 below.
2. DESCRIPTION
2.1 Product Definition
2.1.1

Vinegar is a liquid, fit for human consumption, produced exclusively from suitable products containing starch or sugars or starch as and sugars by the process of double fermentation, alcoholic and acetous, as further defined in Section 2.1.1.1 to 2.1.1.8. Vinegar contains a specified amount of acetic acid. Vinegar may contain optional ingredients in accordance with Section 3.2.

2.1.1.1

Wine Vinegar is a vinegar obtained from wine by acetous fermentation, except that the maximum level for volatile acids in the raw materials may be exceeded.

2.1.1.2

Fruit (wine) vinegar, berry (wine) vinegar, cider vinegar are vinegars obtained from acetous fermentation from wine of fruit or wine of berries or cider, except that the maximum level for volatile acids in the raw materials may be exceeded. The products may also be obtained from fruit by the process defined in Section 2.1.1.

2.1.1.3

Spirit vinegar is a vinegar obtained by acetous fermentation from distilled alcohol.

2.1.1.4

Grain vinegar is a vinegar obtained without intermediate distillation by the process defined in Section 2.1.1 from any cereal grain, the starch of which has been concerted to sugars by a process other than solely by the diastase of malted barley.

2.1.1.5

Malt vinegar is a vinegar obtained without intermediate distillation by the process defined in 2.1.1 from malted barley, with or without the addition of cereal grains, the starch of which has been concerted to sugars solely by the diastase of the malted barley.

2.1.1.6

Distilled malt vinegar is a vinegar produced by the distillation of malt vinegar, as defined in Section 2.1.1.5 above, under reduced pressure. It contains only the volatile constituents of the malt vinegar from which it is derived.

2.1.1.7

Whey vinegar is a vinegar obtained without intermediate distillation by the process defined in Section 2.1.1 from whey.

2.1.1.8

Honey vinegar is a vinegar obtained without intermediate distillation by the process defined in Section 2.1.1. from honey.

3. ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY CRITERIA
3.1 Raw Materials
3.1.1

(i)  Products of agricultural origin containing starch, sugar or starch and sugars including but not limited to fruit, berries, cereal grains, malted barley, whey, honey.
(ii)  Wine of grape, fruit or berries, cider.
(iii)  Distilled alcohol of agricultural origin.
(iv)  Distilled alcohol of silvicultural origin.

3.2 

Optional Ingredient :
The following ingredients may be added to vinegar in amounts necessary to impart a distinctive flavor.

3.2.1 

Plants, in particular herbs, spices and fruit, or their parts or extracts suitable for flavoring.

3.2.2  Whey.
3.2.3  Fruit Juices or their equivalent of concentrated fruit juices.
3.2.4  Sugars as defined by the Codex Alimentation Commission.
3.2.5  Honey as defined by the Codex Alimentation Commission.
3.2.6  Food grade salt as defined by the Codex Alimentation Commission.
3.3  Total Acid Contents
3.3.1  Wine vinegar not less than 60 grain per liter (calculated as acetic acid).
3.3.2  Other vinegar not less than 50 grain per liter (calculated as acetic acid).
3.3.3  All vinegars not more than the amount detainable through the use of biological fermentation.
3.4  Residual Alcohol Content
Residual alcohol: not more than 0.5% v/v, except for 1% v/v in wine vinegar.
3.5 

Soluble Solids
The soluble solids content exclusive of added sugars or salt of;
(i) Vinegars defined section 2.1.1.1 shall not be less than 1.3 grain per 1000 ml per 1% acetic acid and of 
(ii) Vinegars defined in section 2.1.1.2 shall not be less than 2.0 grain per 1000 ml per 1% acetic acid 

4.  FOOD ADDITIVES Maximum Level
4.1  Sulphur dioxide  70 mg/kg
4.2  L-ascorbic acid (as antioxidant) 400 mg/kg
4.3  Caramel colour (plain)  GMP
4.4  Caramel colour (ammonium sulphite process)  1 g/ kg
4.5  Caramel colour (ammonia process)  1 g/ kg
4.6 

Flavors
Natural flavors and natural flavoring substances as defined for the purpose of the Codex Alimentation (General Requirements for Natural Flavoring, Codex Alimentation, Volume 1)

4.7  Flavor Enhancers
4.7.1 

Monosodium, monopotassium and calcium glutamate
(Except for wine vinegar according to Section 2.1.1.1) : maximum level 5 g/kg

4.8 

Carry - Over Principle
Section 3 of the "Principle relating to the Carry-over of Food Additives into Foods" (Codex Alimentation Volume 1) shall apply.

4.9  Processing Aids
4.9.1 

Nutrients for Acetobacter (such as yeast extracts and autolysates and amino-acids) and nutrient salts.

4.9.2 

Clarifying and filtering agents as approved by the Codex Alimentation Commission and used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice.

5.  CONTAMINANTS

Maximum Levels

5.1  Arsenic (As)  1 mg/ kg
5.2  Lead (Pb)  1 mg/ kg
5.3  Sum of Copper (Cu) and Zince (Zn)  10 mg/ kg
5.4  Iron (Fe) 10 mg/ kg
6.  HYGIENE
6.1 

It is recommended that the products covered by the provisions of this standard be prepared in accordance with the General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/ RCF 1-1969, Rev. 2 (1985), Codex Alimentation Volume 1).

6.2 

When tested by appropriate methods of sampling and examination the product:
(a) shall be free from micro-organisms capable of development under normal conditions of storage in amounts which represent a hazard to healthy;
(b) shall not contain vinegar eels or substantial quantities of other suspended matters and sediments; and shall be free from turbidity caused by micro-organisms (mother of vinegar)
(c) shall not contain any substances originating from micro-organisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health.

7.  WEIGHT AND MEASURES
7.1  Fill of Container
7.1.1 

Minimum Fill Vinegar shall occupy not less than 90% v/v of the water capacity of the container. The water capacity of the container is the volume of distilled water at 20C which the sealed container will hold when completely filled.

8.  LABELING
In addition to the Codex Standard for the labeling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985, (Rev. 1-1991), Codex Alimentation Volume 1) the following provisions apply:
8.1  The Name of the food
8.1.1 

A product manufactured from only one raw material shall be denominated "x vinegar" where "x" is the name of the raw material used.

8.1.2 

A product manufactured from more than one raw material shall be denominated "y vinegar" where "y" constitutes a complete list of the raw materials used in descending order of production.

8.1.3 

The content of total acid shall be declared in closed proximity to the name of the food by the term "x %" where "x" is the minimum total acid content in g/ 100 ml calculated as acetic acid to the nearest whole number

8.1.4 

Where an ingredient has been added in accordance with sub-section 3.2 and /or 4.6 which imparts to the food the distinctive flavor of the ingredient or ingredients the name shall be accompanied by an approximate descriptive term.
8.2 Labeling of Non-Retail Containers
In addition to sections 2 and 3 of the General Standard the following specific provisions apply to the labeling of non retail containers
Information on section 8.1 to 8.8 shall be given either on the container or in accompanying documents, except that the name of the food, lot identification and the name and address of the manufacturer or packer shall appear on the containers.
However, lot identification and the name and address of the manufacturer or packer may be replaced by an identification mark, provided that such a mark is clearly identifiable with the accompanying documents.

9.  METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING
See Codex Alimentation Volume 13.

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COMMODITY STANDARD PROVISION METHODS PRINCIPLE  TYPE
Vegetable protein products174-1989 Protein AOAC 955. 04D (using factor 6.25) Kjeldahl digestion II
Vinegar162-1987 Arsenic Codex general method Colorimetry
diethyldithiocarbamete
I
Vinegar162-1987 Copper Codex general method Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
Vinegar162-1987 Iron IFJU Method No 15, 1964 Photometry IV
Vinegar162-1987 Lead Codex general method Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
Vinegar162-1987 Residual alcohol AOAC 942.06 Photometry I
Vinegar162-1987 Residual alcohol OIV Method A 2, 1990 Photometry III
Vinegar162-1987  Soluble solids  AOAC 930.35 C Gravimetry I
Vinegar162-1987 Sulphur dioxide OIV Method A 17, 1990 AOAC (1990 1 st supplement) 990.28, 990.29, 990.31 Titrimetry III
Vinegar162-1987 Total acid content expressed as CH3COOH AOAC 930.35 Titrimetry I
Vinegar162-1987 Zinc Codex general method Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
Wheat flour152- 1985 Ash AOAC 923.03 ISO 2171:1980 ICC Method. No. 104/ 1 (1990) Gravimetry  I
  Arsenic AOAC 952.13 Colorimetrydiethyldithiocarbamete II
  Arsenic AOAC 942.17 Colorimetry, molybdenum blue III
  Arsenic AOAC 986.15 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry III
  Cadmium AOAC 973.34 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
  Cadmium

AOAC 986.15

Anodic stripping voltammetry III
  Copper AOAC 971.20 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
  Copper AOAC 960.40 Colorimetrydiethyldithiocarbamete III
  Lead AOAC 972.25 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
  Lead AOAC 986.15 Anodic stripping voltammetry III
  Mercury AOAC 971.21 Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotomery II
  Sodium chloride AOAC 971.27  potentiometry II
  Tin AOAC 980.19 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry  II
  Tin NMKL Method n 115 (1985) Spectrophotometry, quercetin  IV
  Zinc AOAC 969.32 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry  II
  Zinc AOAC 986.15 Anodic stripping voltammetry III

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